Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. According to the social media marketing firm DreamGrow, as of July 2019 Facebook remained the largest online social network worldwide, with 2.23 billion monthly active users. In fact, more than 57 million people in the USA use LinkedIn, a social media … Journalists discovered that the firm had engaged in a wide range of questionable behavior, including creating psychological profiles of social media users to target for disinformation and influence their behavior. However, critics of the administration have argued that the president's controversial tweeting habits are themselves examples of cyberbullying on social media. Three of the articles evidence that social media can be used for good, another three articles highlight how social media could be used for evil, and the final two articles present a more ambiguous response. Since his inauguration, Trump has stirred controversy for divulging military strategy and classified documents on Twitter, retweeting discriminatory videos and memes from far-right accounts, and using social media to insult federal agencies, private companies, foreign countries, the press, lawmakers, and current and former members of his White House staff. social media is that the five main components of U&G proposed by Katz et al. 11 4. In this introduction, we have set out to consider the question, is social media for good or evil? While the affordances of social media inspire us to act in new ways, embedded in those affordances are the politics of the platforms’ various stakeholders. The types of media posted and exchanged by users of social media may include images, blog entries, videos, direct and group messages, podcasts, newsletters, or music. Chan School of Public Health, discusses a new study he co-authored on associations between social media use and mental health and well-being. With adolescents and young adults, particularly young women, being the primary users of such platforms, it is an important question whether social media use has an impact on self-concept, self-esteem, body image, and body dissatisfaction. (, Introne, J., Yildirim, I. G., Iandoli, L., Decook, J., Elzeini, S. (, Nahon, K., Hemsley, J., Mason, R. M., Walker, S., Eckert, J. This article presents evidence that connects smartphone and social media use among children and adolescents with increased rates of mental distress and suicide. In “Social Media, Opinion Polls and the Use of Persuasive Messages During the 2016 U.S. Election Primaries,” Rossini, Hemsley, Tanupabrungsun, Zhang, and Stromer-Galley (this issue) evidence how social media can be used for both good and evil. Using 52 in-depth interviews with designers, artists, writers, and marketers, their work suggests that cultural workers’ self-presentation activities depend on socially constructed imaginations of different platform’s affordances, audiences, and their own self-concept. In Section Two we detail the different types of social media. Online social media platforms enable people to connect with others who share their interests. Share Tweet Email. Constructing the platform-specific self-brand: The labor of social media promotion, Russian propaganda may have been shared hundreds of millions of times, new research says, Technology as amplifier in international development, Talking to Twitter users: Motivations behind Twitter use on the Alberta oil sands and the Northern Gateway Pipeline, Informatyka, Automatyka, Pomiary w Gospodarce i Ochronie Środowiska, SAGE Publications Ltd. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses, Social Media for Social Good or Evil: An Introduction, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, Agarwal, Bennett, Johnson, & Walker, 2014, González-Bailón, Borge-Holthoefer, Rivero, & Moreno, 2011, Nahon, Hemsley, Mason, Walker, & Eckert, 2013, Forelle, Howard, Monroy-Hernández, & Savage, 2015, Introne, Yildirim, Iandoli, Decook, and Elzeini (this issue, Scolere, Pruchniewska, and Duffy’s (this issue, Rossini, Hemsley, Tanupabrungsun, Zhang, and Stromer-Galley (this issue, http://www.wired.co.uk/article/twitter-russia-brexit-fake-news-facebook-russia, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/02/23/fake-news/, http://www.dw.com/en/far-right-trolls-active-on-social-media-before-german-election-research/a-42667318, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/10/05/russian-propaganda-may-have-been-shared-hundreds-of-millions-of-times-new-research-says/. The research assesses the relationship between the national polls and the social media use of the U.S. Presidential candidates during the 2016 election primaries. 221-239, 2015 . Philip Mai (MA, JD, Syracuse University) is the director of Business and Communications at Ryerson University’s Social Media Lab at Ted Rogers School of Management and co-founder of the International Conference on Social Media & Society. Studies show that around 4.8 million users of social media spend nearly four hours on their phones every day. We start on the dark side of social media with Obar and Oeldorf-Hirsch’s (this issue) article, “The Clickwrap: A Political Economic Mechanism for Manufacturing Consent on Social Media.” A clickwrap is a “digital prompt that facilitates consent processes by affording users the opportunity to quickly accept or reject digital media policies.” Clickwraps have become the dominant form of “consent” on social media platforms that a person would encounter and click through when setting up an account. Some people use the information others share on social media to target and track users for criminal purposes. At the same time, there will always be those who leverage technology in ways that were unintended by the designers. In 2018, Pew reported that bot accounts tended to be more active on Twitter than human accounts and were responsible for two-thirds of weblinks tweeted on the site. By focusing on the relationship between the textual and visual information of social media posts, the research contributes to the ongoing climate policy conversation by understanding how various stakeholders discuss and visualize climate solutions on Twitter. This study aims to examine the existing perceptions and social media practices of nurses in a large academic medical center. The second volume focused on Russia's use of social media. Using topic modeling and sentiment analysis, Lee and Nerghes find that the tone and sentiment of the comments on the videos tends to be aligned with the framing of the video: positive or negative toward refugees. Abstract. January 6, 2020—Mesfin Awoke Bekalu, research scientist in the Lee Kum Sheung Center for Health and Happiness at Harvard T.H. Our study has brought preliminary evidence to answer this … As such, social media cannot be neutral. The second article, “How People Weave Online Information Into Pseudoknowledge,” by Introne, Yildirim, Iandoli, Decook, and Elzeini (this issue), also unearths the dark side of social media by exploring misinformation and how false narratives are constructed and adapted. The contents of this website do not constitute advice and are provided for informational purposes only. Armies of bots have been used to counteract criticism toward the sitting government in Mexico during elections (Salge & Karahanna, 2016), and Venezuelan oppositional parties used bots to attack the regime and spread misinformation (Forelle, Howard, Monroy-Hernández, & Savage, 2015). Leave a Comment. However President Donald Trump's contentious behavior on Twitter, described as unpresidential by many critics, was widely criticized during the 2016 campaign and has persisted throughout his first term in office. He is co-author of the book Going Viral (Polity Press, 2013, and winner of ASIS&T Best Science Books of 2014 Information award and selected by Choice magazine as an Outstanding Academic Title for 2014), which explains what virality is, how it works technologically and socially, and draws out the implications of this process for social change. Jacobson is also a chair of the International Conference on Social Media & Society. This article considers the phenomenon of "fake news," and the role that social media platforms have played in spreading false information presented as fact. If these results are generalizable, then this provides further evidence that social media may support a negativity spiral with respect to labeling situations and individuals. In this study, we used large-scale representative panel data to disentangle the between-person and within-person relations linking adolescent social media use and well-being. Scolere, Pruchniewska, and Duffy’s (this issue) article, “Constructing the Platform-Specific Self-Brand: The Labor of Social Media Promotion,” explores how online content creators present themselves and their work across different social networking sites. Read the overview below to gain an understanding of social media and its impact and explore the previews of additional articles that highlight other perspectives. In response to these and other crimes, North Carolina passed a law in 2008 forbidding convicted sex offenders from using social media sites. This research uses three-wave panel surveys conducted with representative samples of Americans during both the 2012 and 2016 … The research reflects a broad range of topics, which highlight different ways that social media is used for good, or evil, or both. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Gale Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2019. Finally, there are benefits and challenges to using social media in this way. Social media was defined by kaplan and haenlein, 2010 as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological … As researchers, we need to go further than simply asking if social media is a tool for good or evil and instead attempt to understand who it is good for and who it hurts. Research has repeatedly evidenced that activists were successfully recruited on social media platforms (González-Bailón, Borge-Holthoefer, Rivero, & Moreno, 2011), and activists also embraced social media to share news, information, and statements of solidarity (Gruzd & Tsyganova, 2015; Nahon, Hemsley, Mason, Walker, & Eckert, 2013; White, Castleden, & Gruzd, 2014). The use of social media is rapidly increasing, and one of the major discussions of the 21st century revolves around how the use of these applications will impact on the social relationships of users. Summary. Given the presence of actors committed to defending pseudoknowledge, the research concludes that squelching pseudoknowledge online will remain a serious challenge. Social media applications for mobile devices, commonly referred to as apps, became more popular as the use of smartphones and tablets grew in the 2010s. Social network sites (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter) have exploded in popularity in recent years; Facebook, the most heavily used social network site, has 1.71 billion users (Statista, 2016).Although social network sites have improved on the social forms of Internet use available in the HomeNet era, questions remain about the potential consequences of their use. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Many candidates for office use social media for traditional political purposes, such as raising funds, making official statements, live streaming speeches, and posting photos with supporters. The papers are methodologically diverse, including experimental designs, qualitative analysis, inferential statistics, and computational approaches. Swedish teenager and climate activist Greta Thunberg has drawn attention for her use of social media to galvanize a youth-led movement in little over a year. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. That is, protestors were able to use Twitter to stitch together a network of both human and technology-based networks (Agarwal, Bennett, Johnson, & Walker, 2014; Bennett, Segerberg, & Walker, 2014). Cyberbullying, another form of malicious behavior found on social media, can take many forms. Today, it is the pictures of people standing in the middle of a crowd, captivated by what they are reading on their smartphone that best symbolizes the 21st century subject. In 2015, American adolescents aged 13 to 18 years reported using social media 1 hour and 11 minutes a day, 7 days a week. Social media use increases depression and loneliness, study finds Date: November 8, 2018 Source: University of Pennsylvania Summary: Facebook, … The rest of this paper is organized as follows. This concluding section includes examples of how social media can be used for good and evil, and further explores how both may exist simultaneously. ORCID iDsJeff Hemsley https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9276-6983, Jenna Jacobson https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1371-1077. “This issue of displacement has gone on for more than 100 years,” says Jeffrey Hall, PhD, director of the Relationships and Technology Labat the University of Kansas. It was revealed in 2018 that the Trump campaign had employed a data-driven political consulting firm, Cambridge Analytica, that had mined information from over 85 million Facebook accounts. Creative professionals’ self-presentation activities emerge as a result of a negotiation among these imaginations and a perceived need for self-branding. In October 2019, the US Senate Intelligence Committee released the second volume of its final report on the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election. Facebook, for example, earned $16.6 billion from advertisers in the second quarter of 2019, $15.6 billion of which was generated from mobile ads. Meanwhile, reports surfaced that Facebook had been flooded with a Trump 2020 campaign ad that contained false allegations against Democratic primary frontrunner and former vice president Joe Biden. U&G is widely considered a pro-social theory that highlights the benefits for using various types of media and some of those benefits are worth taking the time to Social media use increases depression and loneliness, study finds Date: November 8, 2018 Source: University of Pennsylvania Summary: Facebook, Snapchat, and … That same year, Twitter reported that 5 to 8.5 percent of its active accounts were fake, though a study from the University of Southern California and Indiana University indicated that as many as 15 percent of active accounts could be fake. Importantly, the article argues that fake news is not a requirement for false narratives. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? In 2018 student activists employed the hashtags #NeverAgain, #MarchForOurLives, and #IfIDiedInASchoolShooting to advocate gun control legislation. Social media can also introduce people to new opportunities. Many fake Twitter accounts are operated by software, commonly referred to as bots, that take advantage of the platform's application programming interface (API) to post content automatically. Social networking sites are a form of social media wherein users actively engage with their peers, followers, and the public in general. The longer social media users actively access the information, the more discussion it generates and the greater the social media impact. Gruzd studies how social media use is changing the ways in which people and organizations communicate and connect, and how these changes impact our society. In this study, we used large-scale representative panel data to disentangle the between-person and within-person relations linking adolescent social media use and well-being. Social media has become integrated into the fabric of the scholarly communication system in fundamental ways: principally through scholarly use of social media … Labels, Perceived Agency, and Sentiment Polarity in Online Discussions,” by Lee and Nerghes (this issue) analyzes how the use of labels on social media shapes public opinion, alters people’s views, and dictates the ways displaced peoples are perceived, and, ultimately, received—with a focus on migration issues. Research has subsequently shown that during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, approximately 20% of political discussion on Twitter came from automated accounts (Bessi & Ferrara, 2016). The authors would also like to thank Zizi Papacharissi, editor of the journal, for her ongoing enthusiastic support and collaboration, as well as Rachel Kinnard, the editorial assistant at Social Media + Society journal, for her help in moving the special issue through to publication. Jenna Jacobson (PhD, University of Toronto) is an assistant professor at Ryerson University’s Ted Rogers School of Retail Management in Toronto, Canada. users are teachers and students, social media seem to have greatly influenced the way we teach and learn. Author Toby Walsh acknowledges that such experiments are vulnerable to charges of user manipulation, and makes a number of recommendations to help ensure confidence in this type of scientific work. Its use was seen in presidential campaigns as early as 2008. In this review of the research, we examine how social media are intertwined with adolescent development and assess both the costs and benefits of adolescent social media … Many experts have described a rise in sleeplessness, loneliness, worry, and dependence among teenagers — a rise that coincides with the release of the first iPhone 10 years ago. Based at Tarleton State University, JSMS is sponsored by the Colleges of Liberal and Fine Arts, Education, Business, and Graduate Studies. 3. The article “The Relations Among Social Media Addiction, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction in University Students” detailed a study that explored the consequences of excessive social media use. SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY TWEENS AND TEENS. Labels, perceived agency, and sentiment polarity in online discussions, Where there is social media there is politics, Paper presented at iConference 2013 Proceedings, Far-right trolls active on social media before German election, The clickwrap: A political economic mechanism for manufacturing consent on social media, Cognitive effects of social media use: A case of older adults, Twitter issue response hashtags as affordances for momentary connectedness, Social media, opinion polls and the use of persuasive messages during the 2016 U.S. election primaries. For the more negative videos, the labels become increasingly negative over time, which suggests that earlier negative labels may influence later labels. Pew additionally reported that 46 percent of US adults ages 65 and over were users of Facebook. Jeff Hemsley (PhD, University of Washington) is an assistant professor at the School of Information Studies at Syracuse University. About the Author. However, there is a gap in the identification of evidence of the social impact in terms of what citizens are sharing on their social media platforms. While some scholars have made the case that technology simply amplifies the actions of the wielder (Toyama, 2011), Latour (1999) argues that the technology itself shapes not only the actions we might take, but the kinds of actions we might want to take. First, social media appears to have potential to promote positive mental health. Social media has proven to be an effective tool in raising awareness and coordinating on-the-ground actions for social movements. Understanding the dynamics of false narratives is important because, unlike an individual item of fake news, narratives are constructed from multiple sources and slowly emerge as a plausible reality. (1974) can be applied to social media use. Individuals manufacture credibility by reinterpreting a wide range of online sources—including some scholarly sources—to support, defend, and sharpen the narrative when attacked. The Journal of Social Media in Society is blind peer-reviewed, open-access, online journal that accepts scholarly articles and book reviews. In his work at the Social Media Lab, he focuses on knowledge mobilization, information diffusion, business and research partnerships, and the practical application of social media analytics. The growth of scholarly content in social media and the use of altmetrics by researchers to track their work facilitate the advancement in evaluating the impact of research. The question of whether technology can be considered neutral is certainly not new. Fears about social displacement are longstanding, as old as the telephone and probably older. It helps … Continue reading "Effects Of Social Media On Education" The findings indicate that merely using social media may have positive effects for older adults; the benefits of using social media extend beyond mere social engagement, and can also support their well-being by improving the processing of information and cognitive functioning. As of May 2019, lawmakers in twenty-six states, including Maryland, had passed legislation to prevent employers from gaining access to employees' personal online accounts, while five additional states had legislation pending. Lean Library can solve it. In their research, Obar and Oeldorf-Hirsch use qualitative survey data to assess participants’ interactions with consent materials when signing up for a fictitious social media platform. Social media companies have created technologies that have afforded a transformation in the ways humans socialize—for good or evil. Though bots can be used to deceive people and promote misinformation, many bot accounts are used for practical purposes. After Google searching “articles about social media,” every single article on the first page presented social media with a negative connotation. View or download all the content the society has access to. There is considerable concern about the role that social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, play in promoting misperceptions during political campaigns. Read the overview below to gain an understanding of social media and its impact and explore the previews of additional articles that highlight other perspectives. For Tunisia in the Arab Spring of 2011, the Spanish indignados, and later Occupy Wall Street (Gerbaudo, 2012), social media platforms—like Twitter—were lauded as key tools to facilitate the organization of social movements by serving as a stitching mechanism. Political Expression on Social Media as a Pathway to Engagement: Political Discussion among Twitter Users in Italy Journal Article Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20 (2), pp. Some active bot accounts, for example, are used by public agencies to disseminate news and information regarding natural disasters, school closings, and other emergencies. The authors come from a range of countries, such as Canada, Italy, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the scholarship represents fields such as business, communication, information, political communication, and sociology. Cybercriminals have also used social media to gain access to users' personal information, making users vulnerable to identity theft and other financial crimes. All fifty states and the District of Columbia (DC) have enacted legislation against bullying, with laws in forty-eight states plus DC specifically addressing cyberbullying or online harassment. (, Scolere, L., Pruchniewska, U., Duffy, B. E. (. What is healthy vs. potentially problematic social media use? Hashtagged tweets can support broad and vague audiences where clusters with different orientations can co-exist within the same topical network, which allows for actors to connect—momentarily—in socially meaningful ways that are good for them and, perhaps, for society at large. Based on documents obtained during the investigation, 40 percent of the departments employed social networking surveillance tools. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Login failed. Online activists made headlines in 2017 when, in the wake of multiple allegations of sexual misconduct against high-profile figures, millions of users shared their personal experiences with sexual harassment and assault using the hashtag #MeToo. Using a wait-list control design, the research analyzes the cognitive effects of social media training for older adult, novice social media users. Social Media and Society, 2 (3), pp. Social media platforms like Instagram and Facebook have become ingrained in the lives of countless individuals. As noted at the beginning of this introduction, social media can be used for social good, such as overturning oppressive regimes or bringing income inequality to the forefront of national and international discussions. Sharing links are not available for this article. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. You supply to use this service will not be neutral use these platforms to gather information about mental?. Person 's Facebook or LinkedIn profile before deciding to hire a candidate publication of this article with your colleagues friends... As people can claim false identities credibility by reinterpreting a wide range of online sources—including some scholarly sources—to,... 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