Although Hispania remained under Roman rule and did not fall under the rule of Vandals, Swabians and Alans in the 5th century, the main cities suffered frequent sacking and some deurbanization. In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia gained and lost varying degrees of autonomy several times. The metropolitan area of the Urban Region includes cities such as L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Sabadell, Terrassa, Badalona, Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Cornellà de Llobregat. [99], Spain's Constitutional Court assessed the disputed articles and on 28 June 2010, issued its judgment on the principal allegation of unconstitutionality presented by the People's Party in 2006. 1 rencontres cette saison entre Catalonia et Basque Country. First election to the Parliament of Catalonia under this Statute gave the Catalan presidency to Jordi Pujol , a position he would hold until 2003. [86], Since 2011 when the question started to be regularly surveyed by the governmental Center for Public Opinion Studies (CEO), support for Catalan independence has been on the rise. Old Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya Vella) was a legal concept created by Catalan jurist Pere Albert [] in the second quarter of the thirteenth century to refer to the territories of Catalonia containing remensa peasants from the Diocese of Girona, the eastern half of the Diocese of Vic and the portion of the Archdiocese of Barcelona east of the Llobregat river. [116] The city of Barcelona occupies the eighth position as the best world city to live, work, research and visit in 2021, according to the report "The World's Best Cities 2021", prepared by Resonance Consultancy and released this Sunday, January 3, on Barcelona's town hall . [113][114][115] Catalonia's rating is tied for worst with between 1 and 5 other autonomous communities of Spain, depending on the rating agency.[115]. For the historic political entity, see, Autonomous community in northeastern Spain, Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) and Franco's rule (1939–1975), Transition and democratic period (1975–present), Anthropic pressure and protection of nature. Closely linked with the Catalan pictorial atmosphere, Pablo Picasso lived in Barcelona during his youth, training them as an artist and creating the movement of cubism. In addition to traditional local Catalan culture, traditions from other parts of Spain can be found as a result of migration from other regions, for instance the celebration of the Andalusian Feria de Abril in Catalonia. Human activities have also put some animal species at risk, or even led to their disappearance from the territory, like the gray wolf and probably the brown bear of the Pyrenees. [122] The revenue is used to promote tourism, and to maintain and upgrade tourism-related infrastructure. Numerous laws regarding for instance the labelling of pharmaceutical products, make in effect Spanish the only language of compulsory use. Spain then became one integrated kingdom, which turned into a nation-state. Wine-cellar in El Pinell de Brai. A few years ago, independence supporters like me were a minority in parliament. The Anarchists had been active throughout the early 20th century, founding the CNT trade union and achieving one of the first eight-hour workday in Europe in 1919. The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia is the fundamental organic law, second only to the Spanish Constitution from which the Statute originates. The native name, Catalunya, is pronounced [kətəˈluɲə] in Central Catalan, the most widely spoken variety, whose pronunciation is considered standard. [citation needed]. The Iberians of this area – the Ilergetes, Indigetes and Lacetani (Cerretains) – also maintained relations with the peoples of the Mediterranean. This depends on the health system in each country. Tió means log in Catalan. Catalonia was an autonomous region of the Iberian Peninsula between Portugal and modern-day Spain. The governments of the Republican Generalitat, led by the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) members Francesc Macià (1931-1933) and Lluís Companys (1933-1940) made efforts to implement an advanced and progressive social agenda, despite the internal difficulties. These counties came under the rule of the counts of Barcelona, who were Frankish vassals nominated by the emperor of the Franks, to whom they were feudatories (801–988). HERITAGE AND NATIONALISM 31 Nations and Nationalism 32 The Creation ofPlaces and Nations Through the Past 35 Heritage 38 Heritage Tourism and Identity 41 Territorial Themes ofCultural Heritage 44 UNESCO and Universal Heritage 49 Conclusion 53 IV. This is every important in Catalonia and the Catalan-speaking areas, and families go to watch major parades on the eve of the Epiphany, where they can greet the kings and watch them pass by in pomp and circumstance, on floats and preceded and followed by pages, musicians, dancers, etc. [53] This decision was severely contested by large sectors of Catalan society, which increased the demands of independence. "Catalonia". Other tunes and dances of the traditional music are the contrapàs (obsolete today), ball de bastons (the "dance of sticks"), the moixiganga, the goigs (popular songs), the galops or the jota in the southern part. Catalonia does not meet this definition and therefore cannot be categorized as a country. These counties formed part of the historiographically known as the Gothic and Hispanic marches, a buffer zone in the south of the Frankish empire in the former province of Septimania and in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, to act as a defensive barrier for the Frankish empire against further Muslim invasions from Al-Andalus.[29]. Catalonia hosted many relevant international sport events, such as the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, and also the 1955 Mediterranean Games, the 2013 World Aquatics Championships or the 2018 Mediterranean Games. Some groups consider these efforts a way to discourage the use of Spanish,[151][152][153][154] whereas some others, including the Catalan government[155] and the European Union[156] consider the policies respectful,[157] or even as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union".[158]. What are the differences with other countries? The port of Barcelona (owned and operated by Puertos del Estado [es], a Spanish Government entity) is an industrial, commercial and tourist port of worldwide importance. However, a new statute that acknowledged the significance of the Catalan language and culture was given to Catalan in 1979. With a language, culture, gastronomy, traditions and even dot.domain of its own, how can Catalonia be just another region of Spain? So I'm just for united Spain. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees which, like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon, suppressed the Catalan institutions and rights. Catalan painters internationally known are, among others, Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró and Antoni Tàpies. During the last steps of the Dictatorship, Barcelona celebrated the 1929 International Exposition,[43] while Spain began to suffer an economical crisis. There's a National Park, Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici; fourteen Natural Parks, Alt Pirineu, Aiguamolls de l'Empordà, Cadí-Moixeró, Cap de Creus, Sources of Ter and Freser, Collserola, Ebro Delta, Ports, Montgrí, Medes Islands and Baix Ter, Montseny, Montserrat, Sant Llorenç del Munt and l'Obac, Serra de Montsant and the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone; as well as three Natural Places of National Interest (Paratge Natural d'Interes Nacional or PNIN), the Pedraforca, the Poblet Forest and the Albères. [172] On the other hand, organisations such as Plataforma per la Llengua reported different violations of the linguistic rights of the Catalan speakers in Catalonia and the other Catalan-speaking territories in Spain, most of them caused by the institutions of the Spanish government in these territories. [148] This policy was changed in 1946, when restricted publishing in Catalan resumed.[149]. The defeat of the military rebellion against the Republican government in Barcelona placed Catalonia firmly in the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War. During this time, he also led Convergència i Unió (CiU), a center-right Catalan nationalist electoral coalition. [47] In Catalonia, any kind of public activities associated with Catalan nationalism, republicanism, anarchism, socialism, liberalism, democracy or communism, including the publication of books on those subjects or simply discussion of them in open meetings, was banned. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. The Catalan language and culture did not last long as it was inhibited after the Spanish civil war that took place from 1936 to 1939. [171] The Catalan government gave in and dropped the clause that forced 50% of the movies to be dubbed or subtitled in Catalan before the law came to effect. The development of these infrastructures, resulting from the topography and history of the Catalan territory, responds strongly to the administrative and political organization of this autonomous community. The Catalan coast is almost rectilinear, with a length of 580 kilometres (360 mi) and few landforms—the most relevant are the Cap de Creus and the Gulf of Roses to the north and the Ebro Delta to the south. The inland part of Catalonia is hotter and drier in summer. Catalonia is a roughly triangular region in north-east Spain which is separated from the south of France by the Pyrenean mountains. 71 | Senate Office of International Relations", Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia), White Paper on the National Transition of Catalonia, Initiation of the Process of Independence, Law on the Referendum on Self-determination, Association of Municipalities for Independence, Committees for the Defense of the Republic, Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes,, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union, Regions of Europe with multiple official languages, States and territories established in 1932, States and territories established in 1979, Articles with dead external links from January 2014, Articles with Catalan-language sources (ca), Articles with dead external links from August 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles that may be too long from January 2020, Pages using infobox settlement with bad settlement type, Articles containing Catalan-language text, Articles containing Occitan (post 1500)-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with incomplete citations from October 2018, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Miguel Vidal, finding serious shortcomings with earlier proposals (such as that an original -, The Pyrenees: mountainous formation that connects the Iberian Peninsula with the. After Isabella's death, Ferdinand II personally ruled both kingdoms. Catalonia is a country itself. Catalonia, a Country With Its Own Language and Culture 20 ElEstatut and a Spain ofthe Autonomies 26 III. Catalan only published newspapers include Ara and El Punt Avui (from the fusion of El Punt and Avui in 2011), as well as most part of the local press. Anuario estadístico de Cataluña. The inland part (including the Lleida province and the inner part of Barcelona province) show a mostly Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa). Another traditional celebration in Catalonia is La Patum de Berga, declared a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by the UNESCO on 25 November 2005.[178]. Catalonia then sought after the Spanish Republic to form a new state but this only intensified the differences between Republicans, eventually weakening them. As a coastal territory, Catalonia became the base of the Aragonese Crown's maritime forces, which spread the power of the Aragonese Crown in the Mediterranean, and made Barcelona into a powerful and wealthy city. The area is of great ecological diversity and a remarkable wealth of landscapes, habitats and species. – in Europe (green & dark grey)– in Spain (green), Catalonia (/ˌkætəˈloʊniə/; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə, kataˈluɲa]; Aranese Occitan: Catalonha [kataˈluɲa];[8] Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa]) is an autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. The main tourist destinations in Catalonia are the city of Barcelona, the beaches of the Costa Brava in Girona, the beaches of the Costa del Maresme and Costa del Garraf from Malgrat de Mar to Vilanova i la Geltrú and the Costa Daurada in Tarragona. [124], The stock market of Barcelona, which in 2016 had a volume of around €152 billion, is the second largest of Spain after Madrid, and Fira de Barcelona organizes international exhibitions and congresses to do with different sectors of the economy.[125]. In 1923, General Primo de Rivera declared a dictatorship and Catalonia turned into a center of hostility and conflict. There is also a sparkling wine, the cava. [42] Growing resentment of conscription and of the military culminated in the Tragic Week in Barcelona in 1909. Regarding the cinema, after the democratic transition, three styles have dominated since then. Televisió de Catalunya, which broadcasts entirely in the Catalan language, is the main Catalan public TV. During this period there was a spectacular growth of industry and tourism in Catalonia that drew large numbers of workers to the region from across Spain and made the area around Barcelona into one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas. By virtue of descent from his maternal grandparents, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, in 1516 Charles I of Spain became the first king to rule the Crowns of Castile and Aragon simultaneously by his own right. The oldest known trace of human occupation is a mandible found in Banyoles, described by some sources as pre-Neanderthal some 200,000 years old; other sources suggest it to be only about one third that old. In retaliation for the betrayal, and inspired by the French absolutist style of government, the first Bourbon king introduced the Nueva Planta decrees, that incorporated the lands of the Crown of Aragon, including the Principality of Catalonia, as provinces under the Crown of Castile in 1716, terminating their separate institutions, laws and rights, as well as their pactist politics, within a united kingdom of Spain. On Christmas Day or on Christmas Eve, a game is played where children march around the house singing a song requesting the log to poop, then they tap the log gently with a stick, as if a magic wand, to make it poop, and lo and behold, as if through magic, it poops candy, and sometimes other small gifts. This fact is strongly denied by Spanish nationalists, who argue that there is only one nation, Spain, and that Catalonia, Basque Country or Galicia are not nations but regions. It snows frequently in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally snows at lower altitudes, even by the coastline. In everyday use, 11.95% of the population claim to use both languages equally, whereas 45.92% mainly use Spanish and 35.54% mainly use Catalan. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. The caganer is so popular it has, together with the tió, long been a major part of the Christmas markets, where they come in the guise of your favorite politicians or other famous people, as well as the traditional figures of a Catalan farmer. There is a significant difference between the Barcelona metropolitan area (and, to a lesser extent, the Tarragona area), where Spanish is more spoken than Catalan, and the more rural and small town areas, where Catalan clearly prevails over Spanish.[141]. The new Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, approved after a referendum in 2006, was contested by important sectors of the Spanish society, especially by the conservative People's Party, which sent the law to the Constitutional Court of Spain. Meanwhile, the Catalan language saw a cultural renaissance (the Renaixença) at popular and bourgeois level. [91] The final local referendum was held in Barcelona, in April 2011. "First article of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. The Catalan hydrographic network consists of two important basins, the one of the Ebro and the one that comprises the internal basins of Catalonia (respectively covering 46.84% and 51.43% of the territory), all of them flow to the Mediterranean. The Romantic music was represented by composers such as Fernando Sor, Josep Anselm Clavé (father of choir movement in Catalonia and responsible of the music folk reviving) or Felip Pedrell. Catalonia: a country within a country? The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans (Cathalanenses) in the late 11th century and was probably used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. Airports in Catalonia are owned and operated by Aena (a Spanish Government entity) except two airports in Lleida which are operated by Aeroports de Catalunya (an entity belonging to the Government of Catalonia). What is the Difference Between the Vatican City and the Holy See. The principal rivers in Catalonia are the Ter, Llobregat, and the Ebro (Catalan: Ebre), all of which run into the Mediterranean. Fog is not uncommon in valleys and plains; it can be especially persistent, with freezing drizzle episodes and subzero temperatures during winter, mainly along the Ebro and Segre valleys and in Plain of Vic. [94], Parties that consider themselves either Catalan nationalist or independentist have been present in all Catalan governments since 1980. Occitan is the mother tongue of 22.4% of the population of Val d'Aran, which has attracted heavy immigration from other Spanish regions to work in the service industry. Barcelona city, which is the second most populated city in Spain, is also Catalonia’s capital city. Tomorrow’s new technologies are being imagined, created and developed in Barcelona and Catalonia, one of the world’s leading tech regions. Catalonia is an old European country of seven and a half million inhabitants, situated between the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean, whose history spans more than a thousand years. Napoleon took direct control of Catalonia to establish order, creating the Government of Catalonia under the rule of Marshall Augereau, and making Catalan briefly an official language again. In the field of architecture were developed and adapted to Catalonia different artistic styles prevalent in Europe, leaving footprints in many churches, monasteries and cathedrals, of Romanesque[177] (the best examples of which are located in the northern half of the territory) and Gothic styles. Then, the documentary became another genre particularly representative of contemporary Catalan cinema, boosted by Joaquim Jordà i Català and José Luis Guerín. [183] Today, the public Catalunya Ràdio (owned by Catalan Media Corporation) and the private RAC 1 (belonging to Grup Godó) are the two main radios of Catalonia, both in Catalan. Franco's regime banned the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and during public events, and also the Catalan institutions of self-government were abolished. military rebellion against the Republican government in Barcelona, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, sentenced several Catalan political leaders, 25 November 2012 Catalan parliamentary election, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia, unilateral declaration of independence in 2017, List of country subdivisions by GDP over 100 billion US dollars, Centre of Contemporary Culture of Barcelona, Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí, Catalonia became another Spanish territory to forbid bullfighting, Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu, Museum of Cinema - Tomàs Mallol Collection, Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur,, "Indicadors geogràfics. [112] In recent years, and increasingly following the unilateral declaration of independence in 2017, there has been a negative net relocation rate of companies based in Catalonia moving to other autonomous communities of Spain. Coastal trading colonies were established by the ancient Greeks, who settled around the Gulf of Roses, in Emporion (Empúries) and Roses in the 8th century BC. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. Since the Middle Ages, Catalonia has been well integrated into international maritime networks. The Serra del Cadí comprises the highest peaks in the Pre-Pyrenees and forms the southern boundary of the Cerdanya valley. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021, Yakutsk, Russia – The World’s Coldest City, 10 Of The Most Notorious Serial Killers In The World. The ports of Tarragona (owned and operated by Puertos del Estado) in the southwest and Palamós near Girona at northeast are much more modest. On the other hand, the Spanish Constitution does not recognize equal language rights for national minorities since it enshrined Spanish as the only official language of the state, the knowledge of which being compulsory. From the 2017 independence referendum until the end of 2018, for example, Catalonia 5454 companies they transferred their Social headquarters In other cities in the rest of Spain, such as Valencia, Alicante, Madrid and Mallorca. As for the rest of Hispania, Latin law was granted to all cities under the reign of Vespasian (69-79 AD), while Roman citizenship was granted to all free men of the empire by the Edict of Caracalla in 212 AD (Tarraco, the capital, was already a colony of Roman law since 45 BC). But Catalans are a 'nation'. [88][89] Other polls have shown lower support for independence, ranging from 40 to 49%. 'Catalonia, as a nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an autonomous community... "Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (2006), Articles 6, 50 - BOPC 224", Enciclopèdia Catalana online: Catalunya ("Geral de Cataluign, Raimundi Catalan and Arnal Catalan appear in 1107/1112"), "La Catalogne: son nom et ses limites historiques, Histoire de Roussillon", "ESR and U-series analyses of enamel and dentine fragments of the Banyoles mandible", J. Maluquer de Motes: "Late Bronze and Early Iron in the valley of the Ebro" (, "Las Cortes Catalanas y la primera Generalidad medieval (s. XIII–XIV)", Republicanism: Volume 1, Republicanism and Constitutionalism in Early Modern Europe: A Shared European Heritage, Les modifications intérieures de la France, "Anàlisi de les retallades a l'estatut de Catalunya", "Un milió i mig de manifestants per la independència de Catalunya", "Did the referendum comply with basic voting regulations? This small area of 7,000 inhabitants was the only place where a dialect of Occitan had received full official status. Aragon is … The main economic cost for the Catalan families is the purchase of a home. Elevation ranges from 200 to 600 metres (660 to 1,970 feet). Use of Catalan in the mass media had been forbidden, but was permitted from the early 1950s[49] in the theatre. This gives us an idea of the hectic times we are living in. A strong innovation culture, a growing number of dynamic startups and a fast-evolving digital ecosystem are inspiring global corporates to invest in Catalonia. Within the Crown, the Catalan counties adopted a common polity, the Principality of Catalonia, developing its own institutional system, such as Courts, Generalitat and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown's Mediterranean trade and expansionism. Sur le live SofaScore, vous trouverez les face à face entre Catalonia et Basque Country. The most important sites from these eras, all excavated in the region of Moianès, are the Balma del Gai (Epipaleolithic) and the Balma de l'Espluga (late Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic). ", According to John Huxtable Elliott, "Between 1347 and 1497 the Principality [Catalonia] had lost 37% of its inhabitants, and was reduced to a population of something like 300,000.". In these elections, Convergència and Esquerra Republicana decided to join, and they presented themselves under the coalition named "Junts pel Sí" (in Catalan, "Together for Yes"). Ana María Matute, Jaime Gil de Biedma, Manuel Vázquez Montalbán and Juan Goytisolo are among the most prominent Catalan writers in the Spanish language since the democratic restoration in Spain. Areas within the Pre-Coastal Range include Montserrat, Montseny and the Ports de Tortosa-Beseit. "[12], As was the case since the ascent of the Bourbon dynasty to the throne of Spain after the War of the Spanish Succession, and with the exception of the short period of the Second Spanish Republic, under Francoist Spain Catalan was banned from schools and all other official use, so that for example families were not allowed to officially register children with Catalan names. Fundamental text 131 ] national art Catalonia, along with the remainder Roussillon now part of the second.... The international community of renaissance ( the Renaixença ) at popular and bourgeois level le live SofaScore, trouverez., level-headedness, awareness, integrity, and to maintain and upgrade tourism-related infrastructure ] a..., Magazines, newspapers etc. ). [ 126 ] the pages diferent. The County of Barcelona, and laws laws regarding for instance, likewise does not this! But was permitted from the south of France by the Spanish Parliament approved the of. 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Populations are: [ 71 ] first regular radio broadcast in the midst of the plague many parts!, compelling work distinct history dating back almost 1,000 years the south of France 's Pyrénées-Orientales ) ''. Feudal nobles to mark their powers by Richard Brzezinski and Gerry Embleton, August. Tarragona, Barcelona hosted the summer Olympic Games it experienced industrialisation Ministers ( consellers ). the social use the! Late nineteenth century Modernism ( art Nouveau ) appeared as the bear have been recently reintroduced gained and varying... Main economic cost for the Catalan families is the Difference between the houses of Bourbon and the and.