[30] Thus the upper arm in humans is proximal and the hand is distal. ‘superior’ describes the anatomical structures located above another whereas the term ‘inferior’ describes the anatomical structures located below another structure. Therefore, the main difference between superior and inferior in anatomy is the relative position of anatomical structures by means of altitude. As a second example, in humans, the neck is superior to the chest but inferior to the head. This confusion can arise because the forearm can pronate and supinate. For example, in a fish, the pectoral fins are dorsal to the anal fin, but ventral to the dorsal fin. For example, "anterolateral" indicates a position that is both anterior and lateral to the body axis (such as the bulk of the pectoralis major muscle). Echinoderm larvae are not included, since they are bilaterally symmetrical. "Lateral", "dorsal", and "ventral" have no meaning in such organisms, and all can be replaced by the generic term peripheral (from Ancient Greek περιφέρεια 'circumference'). [68], Aspects of spider anatomy; This aspect shows the mainly prolateral surface of the anterior femora, plus the typical horizontal eye pattern of the Sparassidae, Typical arrangement of eyes in the Lycosidae, with PME being the largest, In the Salticidae the AME are the largest, Standard terms for unambiguous description of relative placement of body parts, "Anterior" redirects here. An indefinite number of triads of mutually perpendicular axes could be defined, but any such choice of axes would be useless, as nothing would distinguish a chosen triad from any others. The genitals are medial to the legs. Another word for superior. [44] For this reason, the end of the organism with the mouth is referred to as the oral end (from Latin ōrālis 'of the mouth'),[64] and the opposite surface is the aboral end (from Latin ab- 'away from').[65]. Higher than another in rank, station, or authority: a superior officer. Additionally, in other animals, this term can describe the structures located towards the end of the body. Terms include: Different terms are used because of different body plans in animals, whether animals stand on one or two legs, and whether an animal is symmetrical or not, as discussed above. [3] Example axes are: Examples of axes in specific animals are shown below. Anatomical axes in a human, similar for other orthograde bipedal vertebrates, Spheroid or near-spheroid organs such as testes may be measured by "long" and "short" axis.[12]. [44], Some elongated protists have distinctive ends of the body. [1] In humans, this refers to the body in a standing position with arms at the side and palms facing forward, with thumbs out and to the sides.[4][1]. Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. [8] To do this, distinct ends of an organism are chosen, and the axis is named according to those directions. Medical definition of superior. These terms describe how close something is to the midline, or the medial plane. DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. The term can describe the structures located below the body. 1. In humans, the head is the most superior anatomical structure of the body. The superior mesenteric vein (SMV) should be positioned to the right of the SMA, especially the first 3 cm distal to its origin. Prolateral refers to the surface of a leg that is closest to the anterior end of an arachnid's body. Of great value or excellence; extraordinary. Usually such organisms are planktonic (free-swimming) protists, and are nearly always viewed on microscope slides, where they appear essentially two-dimensional. For example, the top of a dog's paw is its dorsal surface; the underside, either the palmar (on the forelimb) or the plantar (on the hindlimb) surface. All the eyes are on the carapace of the prosoma, and their sizes, shapes and locations are characteristic of various spider families and other taxa. For other uses, see, "Proximal" and "distal" redirect here. The terms superior and inferior are used when referring to parts of the body which are toward an end of the body. 3. Superior means ‘higher’, inferior means ‘lower’. These terms refer to the distance of a structure from the surface. For example, the head is the most superior structure of the body while feet is the most inferior structure of the body. WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). [2] Thus, what is on "top" of a human is the head, whereas the "top" of a dog may be its back, and the "top" of a flounder could refer to either its left or its right side. [34] For example, the arm is peripheral to the body. The liver is inferior to the lungs. Central and peripheral refer to the distance towards and away from the centre of something. As opposed to inferior. What are the Similarities Between Superior and Inferior, What is the Difference Between Superior and Inferior, What is the Difference Between Hip and Pelvis. In such organisms, the end with a mouth (or equivalent structure, such as the cytostome in Paramecium or Stentor), or the end that usually points in the direction of the organism's locomotion (such as the end with the flagellum in Euglena), is normally designated as the anterior end. Blausen.com staff (2014). Antonyms for superior include low-ranking, junior, lowly, inferior, low-grade, second-string, subordinate, lower, minor and secondary. An organism that is symmetrical on both sides has three main axes that intersect at right angles. (Entry 1 of 3) 1 : situated higher up : upper. [45] The position is often abbreviated. Central (from Latin centralis) describes something close to the centre. [68] Eyes are labelled according to their position as anterior and posterior lateral eyes (ALE) and (PLE); and anterior and posterior median eyes (AME) and (PME). This position provides a definition of what is at the front ("anterior"), behind ("posterior") and so on. Although the direction indicated by "proximal" and "distal" is always respectively towards or away from the point of attachment, a given structure can be either proximal or distal in relation to another point of reference. 2 : of higher rank, quality, or importance. Depending on the organism, some terms are taken by analogy from vertebrate anatomy, and appropriate novel terms are applied as needed. The axes of the body are lines drawn about which an organism is roughly symmetrical. 3. ‘Inferior’ is the opposite term of superior. There is typically no basis for the definition of a third axis. In all cases, the usage of terms is dependent on the body plan of the organism. Volar can also be used to refer to the underside of the palm or sole, which are themselves also sometimes used to describe location as palmar and plantar. Additionally, for some animals such as invertebrates, some terms may not have any meaning at all; for example, an animal that is radially symmetrical will have no anterior surface, but can still have a description that a part is close to the middle ("proximal") or further from the middle ("distal"). 1. They only live because everyone knows they are superior. Figure 2: Superior and Inferior Vena Cava in the Heart. The term ‘superior’ is used to describe the anatomical structures above while the term ‘inferior’ is used to describe the anatomical structures below. Also, another difference between superior and inferior is that the term ‘superior’ can be used to describe the anatomical structures located towards the head while the term ‘inferior’ can be used to describe the anatomical structures located towards the feet or end of the body. [1] This means descriptions as if the organism is in its standard anatomical position, even when the organism in question has appendages in another position. [59] However, humans stand upright on two legs, meaning their anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral directions the same, and the inferior/superior directions necessary. The term "rostral" is rarely used in human anatomy, apart from embryology, and refers more to the front of the face than the superior aspect of the organism. Additionally, this term can be used to give the relative position of a particular anatomical structure of the body based on the altitude. Want to make sure you're learning the anatomy of the mediastinum as efficiently as possible? For example, in the anatomical position, the most superior part of the human body is the head and the most inferior is the feet. [ soo-pe´re-or] situated above, or directed upward; in official anatomic nomenclature, used in reference to the upper surface of an organ or other structure, or to a … For example, it is very confusing to say the dorsal fin of a dolphin is "right of" the left pectoral fin, but is "left of" the right eye, but much easier and clearer to say "the dorsal fin is medial to the pectoral fins". [22] For example, in the anatomical position, the most superior part of the human body is the head and the most inferior is the feet. [2], Deep (from Old English) describes something further away from the surface of the organism. This is because although teeth may be aligned with their main axes within the jaw, some different relationships require special terminology as well; for example, teeth also can be rotated, and in such contexts terms like "anterior" or "lateral" become ambiguous. Superior (or cranial) describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper. 5. [24] For example, in a dog the nose is anterior to the eyes and the tail is considered the most posterior part; in many fish the gill openings are posterior to the eyes but anterior to the tail. or (so͝o-pîr′ē-ər) adj. The location of anatomical structures can also be described in relation to different anatomical landmarks. The long or longitudinal axis is defined by points at the opposite ends of the organism. Home » Science » Biology » Anatomy » What is the Difference Between Superior and Inferior in Anatomy. Thus, there are multiple possible radial axes and medio-peripheral (half-) axes. Several terms are commonly seen and used as prefixes: Other terms are used as suffixes, added to the end of words: Superior (from Latin super 'above') describes what is above something[21] and inferior (from Latin inferus 'below') describes what is below it. [31], This terminology is also employed in molecular biology and therefore by extension is also used in chemistry, specifically referring to the atomic loci of molecules from the overall moiety of a given compound.[32]. Describe the complementary relationship between structure & function. Lateral (from Latin lateralis 'to the side') describes something to the sides of an animal, as in "left lateral" and "right lateral". Definition of superior. The main difference between superior and inferior in anatomy is that the term ‘superior’ describes the anatomical structures located above another whereas the term ‘inferior’ describes the anatomical structures located below another structure. Tributaries. These terms are not used to form the fixed axes. Definition Of Superior In Anatomy Diposting oleh Maria M Beus di 18.11 Posting Komentar Plant biology of an ovary borne above the level of attachment of the other floral parts or above the base of a cup hypanthium that is free from the ovary and bears the perianth segments and stamens. N., Pam M.S. [38], The ventral (from Latin venter 'belly') surface refers to the front, or lower side, of an organism.[38]. What is an example of a test that allows us to measure physiology? The heart is superior … To describe how close to the head of an animal something is, three distinct terms are used: For example, in horses, the eyes are caudal to the nose and rostral to the back of the head. By. The head is superior to the neck; the umbilicus is inferior to the sternum. What is the Difference Between Mesoglea in... What is the Difference Between Abduction and... What is the Difference Between Tibia and Fibula. [35] For example, the external oblique muscle of the abdomen is deep to the skin. [67] Most spiders have eight eyes in four pairs. superior. These terms are used to avoid confusion when describing the median surface of the hand and what is the "anterior" or "posterior" surface – "anterior" can be used to describe the palm of the hand, and "posterior" can be used to describe the back of the hand and arm. They are particularly used to describe the curvature of the uterus.[49][50]. Thus the elbow is distal to a wound on the upper arm, but proximal to a wound on the lower arm. [2] This is because the brain is situated at the superior part of the head whereas the nose is situated in the anterior part. A superior…. Anatomical Planes Of The Body Anatomical Terms Of Location Wikipedia Anatomical Position And Directional Terms Anatomical Terms Directional Terms Anatomy A superior person is most likely named 'Janice'. "Deep" is one of the few anatomical terms of location derived from Old English rather than Latin – the anglicised Latin term would have been "profound" (from Latin profundus 'due to depth').[1][36]. – Own work (CC BY 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia  2. [1][2] Much of this information has been standardised in internationally agreed vocabularies for humans (Terminologia Anatomica)[2] and animals (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria). What is the meaning of anatomy? How does this differ from microscopic anatomy? Organisms that are attached to a substrate, such as sponges, animal-like protists also have distinctive ends. Retrolateral refers to the surface of a leg that is closest to the posterior end of an arachnid's body. However, as left and right sides are mirror images, using these words is somewhat confusing, as structures are duplicated on both sides. Medial (from Latin medius 'middle') describes structures close to the midline,[2] or closer to the midline than another structure. “Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014”. For example, the neck is located superior to the chest. 4. ‘Superior’ is the anatomical term that describes the structures of the body located above a particular structure. Special terms are used to describe the mouth and teeth. Similarly, a perpendicular transverse axis can be defined by points on opposite sides of the organism. Therefore, in addition to the superior and inferior, we need another descriptive pair of terms: Choose from 500 different sets of superior human anatomy flashcards on Quizlet. Superior refers to ‘above’ while inferior refers to ‘below’. Anatomical terms of location in a kangaroo. In organisms that maintain a constant shape and have one dimension longer than the other, at least two directional terms can be used. [42][44] Radially symmetrical organisms always have one distinctive axis. [2] Which is the simplest? See more. The orbits are superior to the oris. As a second example, in humans, the neck is superior to the chest but inferior to the head. One of these is higher and will rule rest three. Find more opposite words at wordhippo.com! In such organisms, only terms such as superficial and deep, or sometimes proximal and distal, are usefully descriptive. Toward an end does not necessarily mean close to the end. Learn more. [68] Usually, the eyes are arranged in two roughly parallel, horizontal and symmetrical rows of eyes. Ocak 16, 2021. Learn more. Therefore, the head is the most superior anatomical structure in humans. tributaries meaning in anatomy. Superficial (from Latin superficies 'surface') describes something near the outer surface of the organism. Rabu, 09 Oktober 2019 Tambah Komentar Edit. Moreover, the anatomical position the most inferior part of the human body is the feet. For example, the Central nervous system and the peripheral nervous systems. ISSN 2002-4436. The part of the organism attached to the substrate is usually referred to as the basal end (from Latin basis 'support/foundation'), whereas the end furthest from the attachment is referred to as the apical end (from Latin apex 'peak/tip'). The major structures of the cardiovascular system include blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, veins, venules), the heart, superior and inferior vena cava, aorta, left and right atrium, left and right ventricle, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve. Hickman, C. P., Jr., Roberts, L. S. and Larson, A. Demonstrative § Distal and proximal demonstratives, "A proposal for a standard terminology of anatomical notation and orientation in fossil vertebrate dentitions", 10.1671/0272-4634(2003)23[1:APFAST]2.0.CO;2, "Study Guide - Histology of the Gastrointestinal System", "Evaluation of the extent of neoplastic infiltration in small intestinal tumours in dogs", "Collins Online Dictionary | Definitions, Thesaurus and Translations", "Dictionary by Merriam-Webster: America's most-trusted online dictionary", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anatomical_terms_of_location&oldid=996654875, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 22:33. Aurelia aurita, another species of jellyfish, showing multiple radial and medio-peripheral axes, The sea star Porania pulvillus, aboral and oral surfaces, Special terms are used for spiders. Radially symmetrical organisms include those in the group Radiata – primarily jellyfish, sea anemones and corals and the comb jellies. In humans, the neck is located superior to the chest, but inferior to the head. [6], Anatomical terms describe structures with relation to four main anatomical planes:[2]. [2] Fields such as osteology, palaeontology and dentistry apply special terms of location to describe the mouth and teeth. Learn superior human anatomy with free interactive flashcards. Several other terms are also used to describe location. [45] For example, structures may be described relative to the anterior superior iliac spine, the medial malleolus or the medial epicondyle. In organisms with a changeable shape, such as amoeboid organisms, most directional terms are meaningless, since the shape of the organism is not constant and no distinct axes are fixed. In anatomical terminology superior from latin meaning above is used to refer to what is above something and inferior from latin meaning below to what is below it. SUPERIOR FUNCTION. [1], For humans, one type of vertebrate, and other animals that stand on two feet (bipeds), terms that are used are different from those that stand on four (quadrupeds). Also, these two terms can be used to describe relative positions of the anatomical structures of the body as well. Anatomical lines are used to describe anatomical location. 3 : courageously or serenely indifferent (as to something painful or disheartening) 4 a : … Superior and Inferior. Anterior (from Latin ante 'before') describes what is in front,[23] and posterior (from Latin post 'after') describes what is to the back of something. The meaning of terms that are used can change depending on whether an organism is bipedal or quadrupedal. The palmar fascia is palmar to the tendons of muscles which flex the fingers, and the dorsal venous arch is so named because it is on the dorsal side of the foot. 87 synonyms of inferior from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 177 related words, definitions, and antonyms. Unlike vertebrates, cnidarians have no other distinctive axes. This helps avoid confusion in terminology when referring to the same organism in different postures. : a superior officer. Many anatomical terms can be combined, either to indicate a position in two axes simultaneously or to indicate the direction of a movement relative to the body. For improved clarity, the directional term palmar (from Latin palma 'palm of the hand') is usually used to describe the front of the hand, and dorsal is the back of the hand. Being superior to physical suffering, it sometimes chanced that they were superior to any consolation which the missionaries could offer; and the law to do as you would be done by fell with less persuasiveness on the ears of those who, for their part, did not care how they were done by, who loved their enemies after a new fashion, and came very near freely forgiving them all they did. The superior sagittal sinus arises near the crista galli, passes in the sagittal sulcus, which is a groove on the internal surface of the frontal , parietal , and squamous parts of the occipital bone . What is the Difference Between Spinal Cord and... What is the Difference Between Coat and Jacket, What is the Difference Between Cape and Poncho, What is the Difference Between Postulates and Theorems, What is the Difference Between Dependency Theory and Modernization Theory, What is the Difference Between Oak and Birch, What is the Difference Between Model and Paradigm. "Proximal and distal" are frequently used when describing appendages, such as fins, tentacles, and limbs. [42][44] Adult echinoderms, such as starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and others are also included, since they are pentaradial, meaning they have five discrete rotational symmetry. Therefore, feet are the most inferior anatomical structure in humans. Mraz, Stephen. Its superior border is an oblique plane extending from the jugular notch of the manubrium to the superior border of T1 vertebra. Tributaries from the head and neck, the arms, and part of the chest unite to form the superior vena cava. [42][43][44] In humans, "cranial" and "cephalic" are used to refer to the skull, with "cranial" being used more commonly. Superior and inferior are two anatomical terms in anatomy. Structures may be described as being at the level of a specific spinal vertebra, depending on the section of the vertebral column the structure is at. Similarly, in the lower leg, structures near the tibia (shinbone) are tibial and structures near the fibula are fibular (or peroneal). In invertebrates, the large variety of body shapes presents a difficult problem when attempting to apply standard directional terms. Find more ways to say superior, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Specific terms exist to describe how close or far something is to the head or tail of an animal. [3], Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, and because appendages like limbs and tentacles can change position with respect to the main body, terms to describe position need to refer to an animal when it is in its standard anatomical position. It also comes from the Latin word ‘below. What is the Difference Between Superior and Inferior      – Comparison of Key Differences, Above, Anatomical Terms, Below, Inferior, Towards the End of the Body, Superior. In anatomical terminology superior from latin meaning above is used to refer to what is above something and inferior from latin meaning below to what is below it. Similarly, the term "caudal" is used more in embryology and only occasionally used in human anatomy. 1. Superior is the term used to describe anatomical structures located in the above. - April 13, 2013. psychological category which presents higher functions one among the four regular basic functions: ability to see, think, have intuition and feel. “Relations of the aorta, trachea, esophagus and other heart structures” By ZooFari (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia, Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things, What is the Difference Between Superior and Inferior in Anatomy. superior meaning: 1. better than average or better than other people or things of the same type: 2. Anteversion and retroversion are complementary terms describing an anatomical structure that is rotated forwards (towards the front of the body) or backwards (towards the back of the body), relative to some other position. Similarly, in the forearm, for clarity, the sides are named after the bones. For example, the bowels are inferior to the lungs. Therefore, the term ‘superior’ can also describe structures towards the head. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples References may also take origin from superficial anatomy, made to landmarks that are on the skin or visible underneath. Whilst the inferior border is a transverse plane extending from the sternal angle to the T4-T5 intervertebral disc. They are used in anatomy, surface anatomy, surgery, and radiology.[45]. 2. anatomy Situated nearer the soles of the feet in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of superior. These two terms, used in anatomy and embryology, describe something at the back (dorsal) or front/belly (ventral) of an organism. Two specialized terms are useful in describing views of arachnid legs and pedipalps. term that describes the structures of the body located above a particular structure Inferior (or caudal) describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail (in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column). These allow parties that use anatomical terms, such as anatomists, veterinarians, and medical doctors to have a standard set of terms to communicate clearly the position of a structure. What are the Similarities Between Superior and Inferior     – Outline of Common Features4. For example, the neck is inferior to the head.