In 2006, American anthropologist Marc Meyer and colleagues described a 1.8 Ma H. e. georgicus specimen as having a spine within the range of variation of modern human spines, contending that Turkana boy had spinal stenosis and was thus not representative of the species. The species spread into eastern Asia, including China, where it appears to have been present until at least 300,000 years ago. Maintaining fires would require firekeepers to have knowledge on slow-burning materials such as dung. Karaniwan lamang ang mga nagawa ng mga sinaunang tao kung kaya’t kaunti ang kanilang mga ambag. Subsequent excavations uncovered about 200 human fossils from more than 40 individuals including five nearly complete skullcaps. A 2011 study suggested that it was H. habilis who reached West Asia from Africa, that early H. erectus developed there, and that early H. erectus would then have dispersed from West Asia to East Asia (Peking Man), Southeast Asia (Java Man), back to Africa (Homo ergaster), and to Europe (Tautavel Man), eventually evolving into modern humans in Africa.  Artificial lighting may have also made sleeping on the ground instead of the trees possible by keeping terrestrial predators at bay.  American psychologist Lucia Jacobs hypothesized that the projecting nose instead allowed for distinguishing the direction different smells come from (stereo olfaction) to facilitate navigation and long-distance migration. The earliest fossils that are complete enough to display the anatomical pattern of H. erectus are from eastern Africa and western Asia, and are about 1.5 to 1.9 million years old. , The earliest probable example of infirming sick group members is a 1.77 Ma H. e. georgicus specimen who had lost all but one tooth due to age or gum disease, the earliest example of severe chewing impairment, yet still survived for several years afterwards. , Based on an average mass of 63 kg (139 lb) for males and 52.3 kg (115 lb) for females, the total energy expenditure (TEE)—the amount of calories consumed in one day—was estimated to be about 2271.8 and 1909.5 kcal, respectively. Like Neanderthals, their skull was long and low, rather than rounded like our own, and their lower jaw lacked a chin. This article includes information fromÂ Our Human StoryÂ by Dr Louise Humphrey and Prof Chris Stringer. , The hyoid bone supports the tongue and makes possible modulation of the vocal tract to control pitch and volume. It is also possible they were the first European mariners as well and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar between North Africa and Spain. In 1921, two teeth from Zhoukoudian, China discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson had prompted widely publicized interest. Our mission in the UK is to be recognised as a leader in developing a national network of socially minded young leaders of the future, who transform communities and society through real life social action and environmentally responsible enterprise. Nonetheless, the mandibular bodies of H. erectus are somewhat thinner than those of early Homo.  However, an apparent lack of reported wearing is likely due to a lack of use-wear studies, and only a few sites yield an exorbitant sum of hand axes likely due to gradual accumulation over generations instead of mass production.  Hairlessness is generally thought to have facilitated sweating, but reduction of parasite load and sexual selection have also been proposed.  A faster development rate could indicate a lower expected lifespan. The conventional view is that the species evolved in Africa about two million years ago. Enactus UK supports students & young people across the country to engage in social action and social enterprise. Turtles and fish were possibly collected live of debate about what function the brow ridge, like heidelbergensis! Were lost during World War two motion using braces, Roach said ) intervals, rocks piled! 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